Saturday, 28 November 2015

CAT Preparation:Get Set Go……Bell the CAT!!!!


Last Minute Tips and Tricks

Get Set Go……Bell the CAT!!!!
CAT is just a couple of days away now. It is quite normal for any aspirant to get nervous and anxious few days from CAT exam and have butterflies in stomach thinking about the exam. But the key thing is to ‘keep calm and be confident’. So we bring to you a few tips to keep your nerves under control in the last two days before CAT.
 So here we bring our experience to help you out.
1. Relax, relax and relax is the guru mantra- Keep yourself relaxed and cool. De-stress yourself in any way that you like to. But do not physically or mentally stress yourself from any activity.
2. Have proper sleep the night before the exam– This will help you to remain active and fresh on the exam day. Have a minimum of 6-8 hours sleep.
3. Utilize the final day to revise all the concepts, formulas, tricks and tips and more importantly a look on all our previous days.  Don’t study anything which you have not done so far. Don’t exert yourself.

4. Read a book. Watch a movie. Listen to music. Do yoga, meditation. Loiter with friends, but don’t discuss the exam. No practice, no revision, no questions. Give yourself a treat. Put together your tool-box, sharpen your instruments. Rest your lower back; have a warm, good meal, sleep early and enjoy the paper.

5. Keep all the required things ready- Have your admit card, ID proof and other things mentioned in the admit card ready so as to avoid last minute hurry.
6. Read the instructions given in the admit card and follow it sincerely. Don’t carry anything that is prohibited.
7. Make sure you reach the examination center one & a half hour before the time of test – This is a must since the security checks, identity verification and checking in may take a considerable time. Avoid getting late. If possible visit the centre day prior to the exam day.
8. Pay attention to the 15 minute tutorial and read all the instructions carefully- The tutorial is to make you comfortable with the procedure of online test and the test environment. Carefully go through this and make yourself ready to ‘bell the CAT’.
9. Stick to your strategy- You might have been preparing for a year or so for this day and the D-Day has finally arrived. So by now you must be sure of your weak and strong zones and have your strategy in mind. So follow the strategy you have made during preparations and mock test. All the candidates in the examination hall are sailing on the same boat. So avoid any anxiety and stick to your goal.
10. Last but not the least- Be confident about your preparation and skills. Yes ‘I can do’ should be your attitude.
CAT is not the end of the world. So don’t think too much. CAT is just a step to your dream college. Lot is still left to reach towards that dream.

Wish you all the Best!!!!! 

Friday, 27 November 2015

CAT Preparation : How to increase Accuracy in CAT 2015


Last Minute Tips and Tricks

How to increase Accuracy in CAT 2015
With the changed structure of CAT 2015, it becomes all the more crucial for all aspirants to focus on accuracy while balancing it with speed. There was availability of more time and fewer questions till CAT 2013 and in CAT 2014 there was no sectional time constraint that enabled you to attempt any question from any part.
CAT 2015 aspirants now need to improve the pace of preparation keeping in mind the following 3 things that can help them ace the exam.
  1. Faster speed
  2. High Accuracy level
  3. Management of time

Aspirants now have to score high in all the 3 sections. Since you have equal time to solve each of the 3 sections, you have to focus only that section which you are going through and maximize your score in it.
Reading, understanding and solving are the three integral steps to attempting a question. Being able to read a question faster will be able to save time for solving and help avoid silly mistakes which students might commit while hurrying to solve a question.
The general strategy for all candidates while attempting CAT 2015 should be as below
·         Attempt all easy questions in the section first. Come back for the difficult questions later if you have time.
·         If after one minute of trying a question you are unable to make headway with a question, leave it and move on to the next question. This will help save time for easier question.
·         Try and attempt all non-MCQs since there is no negative marking for such questions.
·         Do not attempt MCQ questions in which you are not sure of the answer even after elimination techniques. A single mark lost can greatly affect your percentile.
·         Attempt at least 18+ correct questions in each section and you should be good to go.
·         Use the given calculator judiciously avoiding it for simple calculations.
Increasing accuracy in QA
·         Read the question completely. Do not miss out on any details given in the question.
·         Do not attempt questions of topics you are unfamiliar with.
·         Attempt questions which have lesser data first, then move on to lengthier questions.
·         Attempt this section in multiple rounds. Keep about 30 minutes to attempt it the first time around, attempting only easy questions in this round. Move on to the medium questions in the second round spending 20-25 minutes on the same. In the third round come back to any question which you were half way through before giving up on it and try attempting the same.
Increasing accuracy in VA
·         Reading fast while retaining the content in your memory should be what you should be practicing for this section.
·         For RCs, read the questions before reading the passage, this will help you in analyzing the passage in terms of the questions while reading it.
·         Identify 2-3 passages which you find easy to read and understand and attempt those first.
·         Try and avoid tricky questions like FIJs altogether unless you are completely confident about them.
·         The verbal section is very tempting in terms of marking the answer for all questions. But the simple strategy for this section should be “When in doubt, leave it out”.
Increasing Accuracy in DILR
·         There will always be at least 2 DI sets and 2 LR sets which will be really easy to attempt. Identify and attempt these questions first.
·          Try to read through the data in the questions as quickly as possible keeping more time in hand to solve the question.
·         Write down all the data given in LR sets in an easy understandable format (preferably tabular) and solve the set as a whole and then look at the questions. This will help in saving much needed time.

Thursday, 26 November 2015

CAT Preparation : Time management strategy for CAT 2015

Time management strategy for CAT 2015
CAT 2015 examination format is a mixed bag of expectations for most of the candidates. On one hand the exam-takers are free from the headache of time management between the sections while on the other hand, the flexibility of hiding behind DI in Quant and LR in Verbal is lost. Hence, the verdict is that one needs to do well in all areas to get a good CAT score.

In the season of Mock CATs, multiple aspirants struggle with the problem of low attempts in QA as well as VA in spite of their good knowledge backup. The problem lies in the selection criteria of questions by most of the students. Many students do not choose the right questions and remain stuck up attempting difficult ones that not only consumes a lot of time but also ends up with negative marks. However, during mock analysis or going through the solutions they discover that they haven’t attempted many sitters and easy questions.

The total duration of the exam is 180 minutes with exact 60 minutes to answer each section. The total number of questions is 100, divided into three sections. The three sections are Quantitative Aptitude (QA), Data Interpretation & Logical Reasoning (DILR) and Verbal and Reading Comprehension (VRC), in that order. Candidates will not be allowed to switch from one section to another while answering questions in a section.
The key is in not spending time, but in investing it. A quote which aptly expresses importance of time management for CAT 2015. CAT notifications were out with major changes in format of exam, one of them being re-introduction of sectional limit of 60 minutes. With this change, aspirants now have to focus on developing a strong sectional time management strategy.
So, here we bring to you some simple rules and strategies one can follow and take care of to increase his/her chances in securing high percentile in CAT 2015: 

·         Start with areas of your comfort
The thumb rule of attempting any exam is to start with the comfortable questions as it is expected to be less time consuming. This is the best time management strategy to follow as it lets you not to get stuck with one question and waste time answering that.

·         Don’t get stuck at one point
It is advisable not to get stuck at one point in the examination. Do not stay on one question for more than 4-5 minutes. If you think that you are stuck at one question, leave it, mark it for review and move on to attempt another question in the exam.

·         Keep buffer time to revisit the marked questions
Revision as always is very important for ensuring good percentile. Revise the test after completion of the exam to ensure that you are not leaving any simple questions. For the revision of each section, allot sufficient time at the end. Many CAT takers who have excelled the exam in past mention this strategy as very much profitable in terms of fetching marks.

·         Usage of calculator
Coaching institutes teach multiple short-cuts and students invest most of the time learning the same. Online Calculator will give you the advantage of saving substantial amount of time in Quant and DI questions; so refrain from using shortcuts. This will also help you to refocus on the questions and apply the correct concepts without worrying about calculations.

·         Monitor Time

It is likely that sectional percentiles will be the game changer this year.  So try and ensure that you do not ignore one section completely. Take a 2-3 minutes break every hour - close your eyes, breathe deeply and try not to think much. Restart with a refreshed mind. Look at the CAT as a series of three 1-hour tests, one after the other, wherein you need to maximize scores in each of the section.

Tuesday, 24 November 2015

CAT Preparation : Strategy for Verbal Section



Last Minute Tips and Tricks


Deciphering words in CAT using etymology
First of all, relax yourself if vocabulary is not your fortress. Most of the aspirants commit the mistake of mugging of word meanings from multiple word-lists and end up nowhere. One should realize that CAT doesn’t check your knowledge based on vocabulary. It checks your skill of word-application in the form of multiple question formats of Verbal Section of CAT. Just like Numbers form the basis of Quantitative Section, words should be perceived as the building blocks of language and hence, the Verbal Section.
The way Quantitative questions involve application of basic concepts and not memorizing complex formulae, Verbal questions just involves basic knowledge of vocabulary. If you can catch the root hidden in the word, you can easily figure out the meaning based on the context. Sometimes it is even defined for you in the text.
Working on the same lines we bring to you a list of high-frequency roots of etymology and their related words with the corresponding meanings which will surely help you in upcoming CAT and related MBA examinations:
1.      Anthropos (mankind):
·         Anthropology = study of mankind
·         Philanthropy = love for mankind
·         Misanthrope = one who hates his fellow mortals

2.      Agogos (Leader):
·         Pedagogue = a narrow-minded, strait-laced, old-fashioned, dogmatic teacher
·         Demagogue = one who stirs up discontent among the masses so he can gain political power

3.      Alter (other):
·         Altruism = philosophy of putting another’s welfare above one’s own
·         Altercation = argument
·         To Alternate = to skip one
·         To Alter = to change
·         Alternative = a choice
·         Alter ego = A very close and trusted friend who seems almost a part of yourself
·         Alternate (adj.) = other
·         Alteration = a change
[off-topic: Adulation > flattery > Compliment]

4.      Astron (star):
·         Astronomy = study of celestial phenomena
·         Astrology = Pseudoscience which claims it can foretell the future by a study of the stars
·         Astronomical = tremendously big
·         Aster = a star-shaped flower
·         Asterisk = a star-shaped symbol
·         Disaster = calamity/ cataclysm/ catastrophe

5.         Ambi (both):
·         Ambidextrous = equally skillful with each hand; deceitful
·         Ambivert = one who turns his mind both inward and outward
·         Ambiguity = accidentally double-entendre
·         Ambivalent = Uncertain or unable to decide about what course to follow
·         Ambit = An area in which something acts or operates or has power or control
·         Ambience = A particular environment or surrounding influence

6.      Ambul (to walk):
·         Ambulatory = Able to walk about (verb: Amble)
·         Ambulance = vehicle that takes people to and from hospitals
·         Perambulator = A small vehicle with four wheels in which a baby or child is pushed around

7.      Anima (Soul or Spirit or Mind):
·         Animal = A living organism
·         Animate = Give new life or energy to; vivify
·         Inanimate = Not endowed with life
·         Animated = Having life or vigor or spirit
·         Animation = Liveliness/ Life/ Vitality
·         Magnanimous = Noble and generous in spirit
·         Pusillanimous = Lacking in courage and manly strength and resolution; contemptibly fearful [Pusilàvery small]
·         Unanimous = of one mind; in complete agreement
·         Equanimity = Steadiness of mind under stress
·         Animus = Hostility/ ill will/ malevolence/ Animosity

8.      Algia (pain):
·         Analgesic = Anodyne/ Pain-killer
·         Neuralgia = Acute spasmodic pain along nerves
·         Nostalgia = Longing for something past (“nostos” means “a return to home”)

9.      an/ ana (not/ no):
·         Anemia = Lack of important elements in blood
·         Anarchy = Lack of Law
·         Analgesia = Lack of Pain
·         Anomaly = Something not according to rule
·         Anathema = bête noire/ A detested person

10.  Arch (rule):
·         Monarchy = Gov. ruled by Single Ruler
·         Oligarchy = Gov. ruled by few privileged people
·         Anarchist = one opposed to government
·         Hierarchy = Higher echelons of Government, church, Business, etc.

11.   Ante (before):
·         Anterior = Forepart/ front/ stem
·         Antecedent = coming before
·         Antediluvian = Before the flood; ancient

12.  Anti (against):
·         Antiseptic = against contamination
·         Antipathy = a feeling against
·         Antonym = words of opposite meanings

13.  Bios (life):
·         Biology = study of all life
·         Biography = story of someone’s life
·         Autobiography = A biography of yourself
·         Biopsy = medical examination of living tissue

14.  Botane (plant):
·         Botany = The branch of biology that studies plants

15.  Bene (good):
·         Benign = benignant/ kind/ gracious
·         Benediction = a blessing/ Boon (good saying)
·         Beneficent = causing good (doing well)
·         Benevolent = well-disposed (wishing well)
·         Benefactor = helpful/ favorable (a good doer)
·         Benefit = Gain/ profit; welfare

16.  Badinage:
·         Badinage = a half-teasing, non-malicious, frivolous Banter, intended to amuse rather than wound [its closest synonym is “Persiflage”]

17.  Bibere (to drink):
·         Imbibe = (Liquor) Take in liquids/ soak up
·         Bibulous = boozy/ drunken/ sottish

18.  Bovis (ox or cow):
·         Bovine = Dull and slow-moving and stolid; like an ox

19.  Kardia (heart):
·         Cardiologist = heart specialist
·         Cardiac = of or relating to heart
·         Cardiogram = electrically produced record of the beats of the heart
·         Cardiograph = instrument which produces cardiogram

20.  Chiros (hand):
·         Chirography = Beautiful handwriting
·         Chiropractic = use of hands in the curing of ailments
·         Chiropody =  treatment of the surface ailments of hand and foot

21.  Conscience (scruples/ moral sense):
·         Conscionable = Just
·         Unconscionable = Lacking a conscience
·         Conscientious = scrupulous; painstaking

22.  Corr (correction):
·         Corrigible = amendable/ redeemable/ reformable
·         Incorrigible = Impervious to correction by punishment
·         corrigendum = A printer's error; to be corrected

23.  Chronos (Time):
·         Chronic = going on for a long time
·         Anachronism = something out of time
·         Chronological = Relating to or arranged according to temporal order
·         Chronometer = An accurate clock (especially used in navigation)
·         Chronicle = A record or narrative description of past events that happened at one time
·         Synchronize = Happen at the same time; contemporize
·         Synchronoscope = An instrument that indicates whether two periodic motions are synchronous

24.  Con (together):
·         Conformity = Correspondence in form or appearance
·         Congruity = The quality of agreeing
·         Consonance = The property of sounding harmonious
·         Concord = Go together; be in accord
·         Consensus = Agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole
·         Consign = Commit forever; commit irrevocably
·         Concert = A performance of music by players or singers not involving theatrical staging
·         Consolidate = Bring together into a single whole or system; Form into a solid mass or whole
·         Contiguous = conterminous; neighboring/ adjacent

25.  Cogere (to drive together/ compel/ force):
·         Cogent = Powerfully persuasive
·         Cogency = The quality of being valid and rigorous
·         Cogently = In a cogent manner; forcibly; convincingly; conclusively

26.  Chauvinist:
·         Chauvinist = an exaggerated & blatant patriot/ jingoist
[according to the name of a French soldier, Nicholas Chauvin, during the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte]

27.  Caedo/ Cide (to cut down/ kill):
·         Suicide = killing oneself
·         Fratricide = killing of one’s brother
·         Sororicide = killing of one’s sister
·         Homicide = killing a human being (general term for slaying; if proves, it is called “murder”)
·         Regicide = killing of king, president, etc.
·         Uxoricide = killing of one’s wife
·         Infanticide = killing of a newborn child
·         Genocide = killing of a whole race or nation
·         Virucide = An agent (physical or chemical) that inactivates or destroys viruses

28.  Kratia (Rule):
·         Gerontocracy = Gov. ruled by old people
·         Plutocracy = Gov. ruled by wealthy people
·         Technocracy = Gov. ruled by Scientists & Engineers
·         Bureaucracy = Gov. ruled by Bureaus
·         Democracy = Gov. ruled by the People
·         Autocracy = Gov. ruled by an absolute Dictator/ Absolutism/ Totalitarianism

29.  Credo (believe):
·         Credo = Principles by which someone guides his action
·         Creed = a religious belief
·         Credence = mental attitude that something is believable
·         Credentials = bona fides/ attestation/ Certificate
·         Credulous = willing to believe
·         Credible = Capable of being believed
·         Credit = Have trust in; trust in the truth or veracity of
·         Cred = Credibility among young fashionable urban individuals
·         Credenza = A kind of sideboard or buffet
30.  Circum (around):
·         circumambient = Surrounding/ encompassing
·         circumambulate = Walk around something
·         circumcision = surgical removal of foreskin of males
·         circumduction = circular movement of a limb or eye
·         circumflex = diacritical mark
·         circumfuse = Spread something around something
·         circumfluous = Flowing round
·         circumstantial = Fully detailed and specific
·         circumvallation = act of surrounding with a wall
·         circumvent = Surround so as to force to give up
·         circumvolute = Wind or turn in volutions

31.  Cliché:
·         Cliché = it is a pattern of words which was once new & fresh, but which now is so old, worn & threadbare that only banal, unimaginative speakers & writers ever use it
[its closer synonyms are “Bromide” & “Platitude”]

32.  Clandestine:
·         Clandestine = secrecy or concealment in the working out of a plan which is evil or illegal
[Surreptitious = Stealthy, Sneaky, Furtive, generally because of fear of detection]

33.  Carnis (Flesh):
·         Carnelian = Color of red flesh
·         Carnival = festival of merrymaking and processions
·         Carnal = Marked by appetites and passions of body
·         Carnage = great destruction of Life
·         Reincarnation = Return to another body after death

34.  Castigare (to correct):
·         Castigate = Censure severely

35.  Caput (head):
·         Recapitulate = Summarize briefly
·         Capital = seat of the head of the government
·         Decapitate = behead
·         Captain = the head of a group

36.  Cheval (horse) or Caballus (an inferior horse):
·         Chivalrous = Being attentive to women like an ideal knight; Gallant
·         Cavalcade = A procession of people traveling on horseback
·         Cavalier = Given to haughty disregard of others
·         Cavalry = Troops trained to fight on horseback

37.  Cilium (eyelid):
·         Supercilious = Having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy

38.  Cadere (to fall):
·         Cadaver = corpse
·         Cadaverous = Very thin from disease/ hunger/ cold
·         Decadent = Marked by excessive self-indulgence and moral decay; effete

39.  Dexter (right hand):
·         Dexterous = skillful/ adroit
·         Dextral = of or on the right; clockwise
·         Ambidextrous = equally skillful with each hand
·         Dextrorse = Spiraling upward from left to right
·         Dextrocardia = Abnormal condition where the heart is located toward the right side of the chest
[In Latin, Dexter = right hand and Sinister = Left hand. In English, Sinister = evil/ dangerous
In French, droit = right hand and Gauche = Left hand. In English, Gauche = clumsy/ tactless]
40.  Demos (people):
·         Democracy = the political orientation of those who favor government by the people or by their elected representatives
·         Demography = the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
·         Demagogy = Leading the hoi polloi

41.  Dict (to say):
·         Malediction = Curse/ Imprecation / Bane
·         Benediction = a blessing/ Boon
·         Dictaphone = tape recorder
·         Predict = anticipate/ forebode/ prognosticate
·         Dictation = An authoritative direction or instruction to do something

42.  Donare (to give):
·         Condone = Excuse, overlook, or make allowances for
·         Donation = gift [Donee & Donor]

43.  Dilettare (to delight):
·         Dilettante = Showing frivolous or superficial interest; amateurish (don’t confuse it with “tyro”)

44.  Dolere (to suffer):
·         Dolor = (poetry) painful grief
·         Dolorous = Showing sorrow/ lachrymose
·         Doleful = Mournful

45.  Derma (skin):
·         Dermatologist = skin specialist doctor
·         Hypodermic = penetrating under the skin
·         Epidermis = outer layer of skin
·         Taxidermist = one who prepares, stuffs, and mounts the skins of animals
·         Pachyderm = animal with unusually thick skin
·         Dermatitis = skin inflammation, irritation, infection

46.  Ego (I):
·         Ego = self-concept
·         Egoist = one who believes in self-advancement
·         Egotist = one who talks about his accomplishments
·         Egocentric = devotedly self-centered
·         Egomania = self-madness
·         Alter ego = A very close and trusted friend who seems almost a part of yourself
[In the rating of egoism: egomaniacal > egocentric > egotist > egoist]
47.  Equi (equal):
·         Equivocal = purposely vague, ambiguous, susceptible
·         Equality = par
·         Equidistant = The same distance apart at every point
·         Equinox = Either of two times of the year when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator and day and night are of equal length
·         Equanimity = composure/ calmness
·         Equilibrium = A stable situation in which forces cancel one another

48.  Esce:  (beginning to):
·         Adolescent = beginning to grow up
·         Evanescent = Ephemeral/ beginning to vanish
·         Convalescent = beginning to get well
·         Putrescent = becoming Putrid/ beginning to rot

49.  Eu (good):
·         Eugenics = methods of improving genetic qualities
·         Euphemism = Good or inoffensive saying
·         Euphony = pleasant Lilt or rhythm
·         Eulogy = formal speech of praise
·         Euphoria = sense of mental buoyancy
·         Euthanasia = mercy killing/ good death

50.  Enervis (weak):
·         Enervate = Weaken mentally or morally

51.  Equus (Horse):
·         Equestrienne = a horse-woman
·         Equine = Horse-like

52.  Esthet (feeling):
·         Esthetic = Appealing to the feelings
·         Anesthetic = no feeling
·         Anesthesia = insensibility to feeling

53.  Fac or fic (to do):
·         Maleficent = causing harm (doing badly)
·         Beneficent = causing good (doing well)
·         Factory = a place where things are done
·         Fact = something which was done/ something true
·         Malefactor = a criminal (a bad doer)

54.  Fer (to bear):
·         Somniferous = bearing sleep
·         Vociferous = bearing loud voice
·         Odoriferous = Emitting an odor

55.  Frater (brother):
·         Fraternize = Be on brotherly terms with someone
·         Fraternal = brotherly
·         Fraternity = Frat/ Sodality/ Brotherhood
·         Fratricide = killing of one’s brother

56.  Gyne (woman):
·         Misogynist = one who hates women
·         Gynecologist = doctor specializing in female disorders

57.  Gamos (marriage):
·         Monogamy = system of having one mate at a time
·         Polygamy = social custom of plurality of marriages
·         Bigamy = legal crime of having more than one spouse
·         Misogamy = hatred of marriage

58.  Graph (writing):
·         Graphology = study & analysis of handwriting
·         Chirography = Beautiful handwriting
·         Telegraph = writing from afar
·         Stenograph = writing in short form
·         Autograph = writing of one’s own name

59.  Geos (earth):
·         Geology = study of the composition of earth
·         Geometry = measurement of figures
·         Geography = Study of the earth's surface; includes topography, climate, soil and vegetation
·         Apogee = Apoapsis in Earth orbit
·         Perigee = Periapsis in Earth orbit

60.  Gen (to give birth to/ to be born):
·         Genetics = The branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
·         Gene = segment of DNA considered as unit of heredity
·         Genealogy = The study of ancestry and family history
·         Eugene/ Eugenia = well-born
·         Eugenics = The study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding
·         Genital = venereal (relating to the external sex-organs)
·         Genesis = The beginning, birth or origin of anything
·         Psychogenic = born of the mind or emotions
·         Congenital = Present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development (don’t confuse Congenital with Congenial, means friendly)
·         Genocide = killing of a whole race or nation

61.  Gnos (to know):
·         Agnostic = who doesn’t know about the God
·         Diagnosis = Identifying the cause of some phenomenon
·         Prognosis = A prediction about how something (the course of a disease) will develop

62.  Greg (Herd):
·         Congregation = a religious Herd
·         Segregation = separation from the Herd
·         Gregarious = who likes to be with the Herd
·         Egregious = so vicious that it actually stands out from the herd

63.  Garrulous (chattering):
·         Garrulity = constant talking, usually aimless and meaningless, about trifles

64.  Gratus (agreeable or pleasing):
·         Gratuitous = Costing nothing; without cause
·         Gratis = free; without payment
·         Gratuity = a tip
·         Gratitude = thankfulness
·         Ingrate = A person who shows no gratitude
·         Ingratiate = Gain favor with other by deliberate efforts
·         Congratulate = felicitate
·         Gratify = satisfy

65.  Homo (mankind):
·         Homo sapiens = The only surviving hominid; species to which modern man belongs; bipedal primate having language and ability to make and use complex tools

66.  Hypo (under/ Less):

·         Hypochondriac = A patient with imaginary symptoms and ailments [chondria à Cartilage of the Breastbone]
·         Hypothyroidism = An underactive thyroid gland
·         Hypothetic = Based primarily on surmise rather than adequate evidence
·         Hypoactive = Abnormally inactive
·         Hypocritical = Professing feelings one does not have
·         Hyponym = A word that is more specific than a given word

67.  Hyper (over/ above):
·         Hypercritical = Inclined to judge too severely
·         Hypertension = high blood pressure
·         Hypersensitive = allergic
·         Hypermedia = interactive multimedia system
·         Hypertext = machine-readable text
·         Hypertrophy = Abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ; dysplasia [antonymà Atrophy; root word “trephein” means “to nourish”]

68.  Iatreia (healing):
·         Pediatrics = the healing of a child
·         Psychiatrist = a doctor who heals sick minds

69.  itis (inflammation):
·         Osteomyelitis = Inflammation of the bones

70.  Icon (a religious image):
·         Iconoclast = someone who sneers at convention & tradition (it does not of course have to be restricted to religion)
[root word “clast” means “to break”]

71.  Insect (cut):
·         Insects =  forms of life that seem, in appearance, as if they are almost cut in two
·         Dissection = Cutting so as to separate into pieces
·         Sectile = Capable of being cut
·         Sector = A group that forms part of society or economy

72.  logy (the study of):
·         Phrenology = analysis of skull contours
·         Graphology = study & analysis of handwriting
·         Psychology = study of human mind
·         Ophthalmology = The branch of medicine concerned with the eye and its diseases
·         Astrology = Pseudoscience which claims it can foretell the future by a study of the stars

73.  Laconia:
·         Laconic = Brief and to the point; effectively cut short (named after ancient Sparta, which was originally known as Laconia, its citizens were stoical)

74.  Loquor (to speak):
·         Loquacious = Full of trivial conversation
·         Eloquent = speaking expressively
·         Grandiloquent = Magniloquent = pompous
·         Soliloquy = speech made to oneself
·         Ventriloquist = A performer who projects the voice into a wooden dummy
·         Colloquial = Informal spoken language
·         Circumlocution = An indirect way of expressing

75.  Misein (to hate):
·         Misanthropy = hatred of mankind
·         Misogyny = hatred of women
·         Misogamy = hatred of marriage

76.  Mono (one):
·         Monk = A male religious living in a cloister and devoting himself to contemplation and prayer and work
·         Monastery = cloister
·         Monotonous = humdrum
·         Monoplane = An airplane with a single wing
·         Monopoly = Exclusive control of something
·         Monarchy = autocracy
·         Monocarpic = Dying after bearing fruit only once
·         Monologue = A (usually long) dramatic speech by a single actor

77.  Martinet:
·         Martinet = Someone who demands exact conformity to rules and forms
[according to the name of the Inspector General of Infantry of France during the reign of King Louis 14, who was excessively disciplined]

78.  Malus (bad):
·         Malign = Evil; Harmful; Hateful
·         Malignant = cancerous
·         Malediction = Curse/ Imprecation / Bane (bad saying)
·         Maleficent = causing harm (doing badly)
·         Malevolent = ill-disposed (wishing badly)
·         Maladroit = awkward (having a bad right hand)
·         Malaise = illness (bad ease)

79.  Metron (measure):
·         Sphygmomanometer = blood pressure measuring device
·         Optometrist = one who measures the vision of the eye
·         Thermometer = measure of heat
·         Taximeter = measure of taxicab miles
·         Metric system = system of measurement
·         Barometer = measure of atmospheric pressure

80.  Militaris (pertaining to a fighting man):

·         Militate = Fight against; act upon
·         Militant = Belligerent/ disposed to Fight
·         Military = armed services

81.  Mater (mother):
·         Matriarch = The female head of family or tribe
·         Maternity = Motherhood
·         Maternal = Motherly
·         Matron = A married woman (middle-aged with children) who is staid and dignified; Nurse; wardress
·         Alma Mater = school you graduated from (one’s intellectual mother)
·         Matrimony = The ceremony or sacrament of marriage
·         Matronymic = a name formed on the mother’s name
·         Matrisib = enate/ matrikin/ matrilineal kin

82.  Mania (madness/ morbid attraction):

·         Monomania = A mania restricted to one thing or idea
·         Dipsomania = alcoholism/ potomania/ inebriation
·         Kleptomania = cacoethes to steal in the absence of any economic motive
·         Pyromania = morbid compulsion to set fire to things [Pyromaniac sets fire for the thrill, Incendiary for revenge & arsonist for money]
·         Megalomania = A psychological state characterized by delusions of grandeur
·         Nymphomania = Abnormally intense sexual desire in women; concupiscence/ Eros

83.  Moneta:
·         Money = medium of exchange (it comes from the name of the Roman Goddess, Juno Moneta, who guarded the temples of Finance)
·         Patrimony = an inheritance from one’s father
·         Monetary = Relating to or involving money; Pecuniary
·         Moneyer = A skilled worker who coins or stamps money

84.  Neuron (nerve):
·         Neurologist = doctor specializing in nerves
·         Neuralgia = acute pain along the nerves and their branches
·         Neuritis =  inflammation of the nerves
·         Neurasthenia = depression and emotional exhaustion
·         Neurosis = emotional disturbance

85.  Notus (known):
·         Noted = Widely known and esteemed
·         Notorious = widely but unfavorably Known
[off-topic: Childlike = Exhibiting childlike simplicity and credulity; but, Childish = Indicating a lack of maturity ]

86.  Nomos (arrangement/ Law/ Order):
·         Astronomy = arrangement of stars & other celestial bodies
·         Autonomy = self-law, self-rule, self-government
·         Metronome = musical time measurer

87.  Nym (Name or meanings):
·         synonym = words of same meaning
·         antonym = words of opposite meaning
·         homonym = words of similar sounding
·         acronym = abbreviated form of several words
·         Pseudonym = nom de plume/ Penname [not “alias”]
·         Anonymous = having no name
·         Eponym = The person for whom something is named

88.   Osteon (bone):
·         Osteopathy = treatment based on skeleton and muscles
·         Osteomyelitis = Inflammation of the bones

89.  Odontos (tooth):
·         Orthodontist = Doctor specializing in straightening of teeth

90.  Opsis (sight or viewing):
·         Biopsy = medical examination of living tissue
·         Autopsy = medical examination of a corpse

91.  Optikos (eye):
·         Optic = Of or relating to or resembling the eye
·         Optician = one who grinds lenses
·         Optometrist = one who measures the vision of the eye

92.  Oculus (eye):
·         Oculist = eye specialist
·         monocle = one-lens eyeglass
·         binocular = field glasses which increase the range of our two eyes
·         inoculate = immunize/ vaccinate

93.  Obstetrix (to stand before):
·         Obstetrics = midwifery/ OB/ tocology
·         [Off-topic: as an old English root, Glib = slippery.
·         Literally, Glib = Artfully persuasive in speech.
·         Derogatorily, it means “Marked by lack of intellectual depth”]

94.  Ortho (change):
·         Orthopedist = the doctor who straightens bone deformities, in children primarily
·         Orthodontist = Doctor specializing in straightening of teeth
·         Orthography = A method of representing the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols

95.  Pod (foot):
·         Podium = speaker’s stand
·         Tripod = three legged stand
·         Podiatry = treatment of minor ailments of foot

96.  Phrenos (brain):
·         Phrenology = analysis of skull contours
·         Phrenic vein = Either of two veins that drain the diaphragm

97.  Phobia (morbid repulsion):
·         Claustrophobia = A morbid fear of being closed in a confined space
·         Agoraphobia = A morbid fear of open spaces (as fear of being caught alone in some public place)
·         Acrophobia = A morbid fear of great heights
·         Pistanthrophobia = common fear of trusting people due to past experiences with relationships gone bad
·         Hydrophobia = A morbid fear of water
·         Xenophobia = A morbid fear of Foreigners
·         Photophobia = A morbid fear of Light

98.  Ped (foot):
·         Pedestal = A support or foundation
·         Pedal = A lever that is operated with the foot
·         Pedestrian = A person who travels by foot; prosaic/ commonplace/ hackneyed/ banal/ trite

99.  Philos (Love):
·         Philology = Love of words (study of Linguistics)
·         Philanthropist = altruist
·         Philanderer = one who makes Love triflingly
·         Philatelist = one who loves to collect stamps
·         Anglophile = An admirer of British customs
·         Bibliophile = Lover & collector of rare books
·         Philadelphia = City of Brotherly Love
·         Philosophy = Love of wisdom
·         Philharmonic = Love of harmonies or music
·         Philtre = love-potion

100.                      Pater (father):
·         Patriot = One who loves and defends his or her country
·         Patrioteer = Chauvinist/ jingoist
·         Patrimony = an inheritance from one’s father
·         Patronymic = a name formed on the father’s name
·         Paternity = Fatherhood
·         Patriarch = The male head of family or tribe
·         Patricide = killing of one’s father
·         Patrician = Aristocrat/ Blue-blood/ of noble origin
·         Patron = Frequenter/ Sponsor/ Supporter
·         Padre = A chaplain in one of the military services

101.                      Par (equal):

·         Par = (golf) the standard number of strokes set for each hole on a golf course, or for the entire course; A state of being essentially equal or equivalent
·         Parity = Functional equality (used in Obstetrics, Mathematics, Physics & Computer Science with slight difference)
·         Disparity = Inequality or difference in some respect
·         Disparage = Express a negative opinion of someone’s achievements, accomplishments, attempts, etc.
·         Compare = Examine and note the similarities or differences of
·         Peer = A person who is of equal standing with another in a group

102.                      Pathos (suffering/ disease/ feeling):

·         Psychopathic = mentally suffered
·         Osteopathy = treatment based on skeleton and muscles
·         Sympathetic = same feeling as someone else
·         Antipathy = Dislike/ Aversion/ Grudge
·         Apathy = Lack of feeling or interest
·         Pathology = Study of disease (Pathological = diseased)
·         Pathetic = Deserving or inciting pity
·         Pathos = A quality that arouses emotions (especially pity or sorrow); poignancy
·         Telepathy = Apparent communication from one mind to another without using sensory perceptions
·         Homeopathy = A method of treating disease with small amounts of remedies that, in large amounts in healthy people, produce symptoms similar to those being treated
·         Allopathy = The usual method of treating disease with remedies that produce effects differing from those produced by the disease itself

103.                      Phanein (to show):
·         Sycophant = A person who tries to please someone in order to gain a personal advantage/ boot-licker/ stoolpigeon [root “sykon” means “fig”]
·         Diaphanous = So thin as to transmit light [root “dia” means “through”]

104.                      Paidos (child):
·         Pediatrician = baby doctor
·         Pedagogy = the leading of a child
·         Orthopedist = the doctor who straightens bone deformities, in children primarily

105.                      Psyche (mind):
·         Psychiatrist = a doctor who heals sick minds
·         Psychosis = personality disorder
·         Psychologist = one who studies the human mind
·         Psychotherapy = treatment of the mind
·         Psychoanalysis = one who delves into the unconscious mind of the patient
·         Psyche = mental, spiritual or nonphysical aspect of one’s existence
·         Psychic = Phenomena or qualities that cannot be explained in purely physical terms
·         Psychopathic = mentally suffered
·         Psychosomatic = pertaining to relationships between mind and body
·         Psychogenic = which originates emotionally

106.                      Pan (all):
·         Pandemonium = A state of extreme disorder
·         Panorama = a view all around/ cyclorama/ diorama
·         Panacea = Hypothetical remedy for all ills or diseases/ catholicon/ Elixir

107.                      Poly (many):
·         Polygon = a geometric figure of many sides
·         Polyglot = speaking many Languages
·         Polyamory = having multiple sexual relationships
·         Polyclinic = clinic in which many diseases are treated
·         Polychromic = Having or exhibiting many colors
·         Polydipsia = Excessive thirst
·         Polysemy = lexical ambiguity
·         Polyptoton = Repetition of a word in a different case or inflection in the same sentence
·         Polysomy = Congenital defect of having one or more extra chromosomes in somatic cells
·         Polygraph = A medical instrument that records several physiological processes simultaneously (e.g., pulse rate and blood pressure and respiration and perspiration)

108.                      Placidus (to please):
·         Placate = Lenify/ assuage/ conciliate/ mollify/ pacify
·         Placid = tranquil/ serene
·         Implacable = inexorable/ relentless/ grim/ stern
·         Complacent = self-satisfied (mild insult)
·         Placebo = An innocuous or inert medication; given as a pacifier or to the control group in experiments on the efficacy of a drug

109.                      Reg (King/ Rule):
·         Regal = Imperial/ majestic/ royal
·         Regent = Someone who rules during the absence or incapacity or minority of the country's monarch
·         Regulate = Bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage

110.                      Solus (alone):
·         Soliloquy = speech made to oneself
·         Solitude = The state or situation of being alone
·         Solitary = Being the only one; single and isolate
·         Solo = Any activity that is performed alone

111.                      Semantikos (significant meaning):
·         Semantics = The study of language meaning
·         Semantic memory = Your memory for meanings and general (impersonal) facts
·         Semantic error = An error in logic or arithmetic that must be detected at run time

112.                      Somnus (sleep):
·         Somnolent = Sleepy
·         Insomnia = inability to fall asleep
·         Somnambulism = Sleep-walking
·         Somniferous = sleep-inducing/ soporific/ Somnific
·         Somniloquy = Uttering speech while asleep
·         Somnolescent = drowsy
·         Hypersomnia = An inability to stay awake
[“somnus” is the Roman god of Sleep, while “hypnos” is the Greek God of sleep!]

113.                      Summus (total/ highest amount):
·         Summit = The top or extreme point of something
·         Sum = The final aggregate
·         Consummate = Perfect and complete in every respect; having all necessary qualities

114.                      Soror (sister):
·         Sorority = A social club for female undergraduates
·         Sororal = Sister like
·         Sororicide = killing of one’s sister

115.                      Scrib/ Scrip (write):
·         Scribe = Score a line on with a pointed instrument
·         Scribble = Write carelessly/ scrawl
·         Inscribe = enroll; engrave; encrypt; autograph
·         Proscribe = forbid or prohibit the use of any food or drug that might prove harmful to the patient
·         Prescribe = opposite to Proscribe
·         Scriptures = Any writing that is regarded as sacred by a religious group
·         Script = Something written by hand
·         Conscription = Compulsory military service
·         Circumscribe = Restrict or confine

116.                      Theos (god):
·         Theism = Belief in the existence of God
·         Atheism = Belief that there is no God (not Agnosticism, Cynicism or Skepticism, these means “only Doubt”)
·         Monotheism = Belief in a single God
·         Polytheism = Belief in multiple Gods
·         Pantheism = worship that admits all Gods
·         Theocracy = government ruled by religious Leader
·         Theological = pertaining to the study of Religion
·         Apotheosis = Elevation of a person to the status of God

117.                      Tele (afar):
·         Telepathy = feeling each other’s thoughts from afar
·         Telephone =  sound from afar
·         Telegraph = writing from afar

118.                      Taceo (to be silent):
·         Taciturn = Reticent/ Reserved/ secretive
·         Tacit = not verbalized/ unsaid/ unspoken

119.                      Uxor (wife):
·         Uxor = (legal terminology) the Latin word for wife
·         Uxoricide = killing of one’s wife
·         Uxorious = excessively devoted to one’s wife

120.                      Verbum (word):
·         Verbal = using words
·         Verbose = using too many words than necessary
·         Verbatim = In precisely the same words used by a writer or speaker
·         Verb = A content word that denotes an action, occurrence, or state of existence
·         Verborrhea = an incessant, over-whelming cascade of words

121.                      Ventri (stomach):
·         Ventriloquist = A performer who acts as he is speaking from his stomach, instead of his mouth
·         Ventral = Toward or on the belly; front of a primate or lower surface of a lower animal [antonym = dorsal]

122.                      Vita (Life):
·         Vital = Essential to Life; of crucial importance
·         Vitality = Life & strength
·         Vitamin = One of the many elements, on which life is dependent (A, B, C, D, E, G, H, K, M, P)
·         Vitalize = to impart vigor or life to
·         Devitalize = to rob of vigor or life
·         Vitellus = yolk
[off-topic: in complimentary sense,Gourmet > Gourmand > Glutton]

123.                      Vetus (old):
·         Veteran = Rendered competent through trial and experience; Seasoned
·         Inveterate = Habitual (derogatory implication)

124.                      Volubile (to roll):
·         Volubility = Rolling out the words
·         Revolve = to roll around

125.                      Vir (man):

·         Virago = Far from being traditionally Feminine; Termagant/ Harridan/ Battle-ax/ Shrew/ Harpy

126.                      Verto (to turn):

·         Introvert = one who turns his mind inward
·         Extrovert = one who turns his mind outward
·         Ambivert = one who turns his mind both inward and outward

127.                      Voc/ vox/ vok (voice or call):
·         Equivocal = mugwumps/ fencesitters (not ambiguous)
·         Equivocate = prevaricate/ tergiversate (purposely)
·         Magnavox = (radio) Large voice
·         Vox populi = public opinion
·         Vocation = calling
·         Avocation = hobby; something not one’s actual calling
·         Vociferous = in a loud voice
·         Revoke = call back; cancel
·         Convoke = call together

128.                      Via (road):
·         Via = By way of/ thru
·         Obvious = Conspicuous/ apparent/ evident/ overt
·         Obviate = Prevent from happening

129.                      Volo (to wish):
·         Malevolent = ill-disposed (wishing badly)
·         Benevolent = well-disposed (wishing well)
·         Voluntary =  Of your own free will or design
·         Involuntary = Not subject to the control of the will
·         Volunteer = do, tell or agree freely
·         Volition = will

130.                      Zoion (animal):
·         Zoology = The branch of biology that studies animals

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